With the acceleration of social modernization, children have more and more opportunities to contact with electricity in their daily life. The reason for electric shock is often to touch the electric appliance, power socket or the broken end of the electric wire by hand, and occasionally to be hit by lightning when sheltering from the rain under the tree in rainy days. Do you know the cause of the child’s electric shock? Let’s talk about this knowledge!
What are the causes of children’s electric shock and lightning stroke?
(1) ignorance: children play with light plugs, sockets, wires or other electrical appliances out of ignorance or curiosity. When the wire is broken, I don’t know how to avoid it, or even touch it with my hand.
(2) too low installation of socket: the indoor electrical socket is too low to be touched by children, or dug with fingers, keys, coins, metal pins, etc.
(3) touch by mistake: when climbing the roof or catching birds on trees, or playing, touch the high-altitude wire by mistake.
(4) no protective equipment: no protective equipment to pull the relatives or partners of electric shock.
(5) shelter from rain under trees: wet clothes during lightning, shelter from rain or play under trees.
2. Factors affecting the degree of damage
(1) alternating current is more dangerous than direct current: low frequency of alternating current is more dangerous than high frequency.
(2) high voltage: the higher the voltage or current, the more serious the damage.
(3) power on time: the longer the power on time is, the more serious the damage will be.
(4) contact site: the closer the body contact site is to the heart and brain, the more likely it is to die, and the smaller the resistance of the contact site, the more likely it is to show systemic reaction.
(5) current entry point and exit point: the direction and position of current entry point and exit point as well as the damage of single or double wire electric shock are different.
(6) step voltage electric shock: Although people don’t touch the wire directly around the place where the high-voltage wire falls (within about 10 m), muscle spasm or even coma may occur due to different potential difference between two feet, which is called step voltage electric shock.
The severity of injury caused by current to human body depends on the following factors: ① type of current (AC, DC); ② current intensity; ③ voltage level; ④ resistance of current; ⑤ time of human body contacting current; ⑥ way of current flowing through the body; ⑦ frequency of current (low frequency, high frequency).
According to Ohm’s Law: current = voltage / resistance, the resistance of various tissues of human body to current is different, and its size is successively bone, tendon, fat, skin, muscle, nerve and blood vessel. When the tissues are in different states, their electrical resistance also changes. For example, when the skin is sweating and wet, the electrical resistance is smaller than when the skin is dry.
The mechanism of electric current injury to human body has not been fully understood.
1. When the tissue burn current passes through the tissue, due to the existence of resistance, the electric energy is converted into heat energy to produce tissue burn. The parts with serious tissue damage are often the parts with high resistance.
2. The strong exciting alternating current of nervous system and muscle can cause the strong exciting of nervous system and muscle. In addition to the skeletal muscle, the bronchial smooth muscle can also produce the strong contraction due to the exciting, resulting in the respiratory arrest, the cardiovascular dysfunction, and the cardiac arrest due to the coronary artery spasm.
3. Make the tissue decompose because of electrolysis current, make the tissue decompose because of electrolysis, and destroy the ion balance inside and outside the cell membrane.
The above is the basic pathogenic mechanism of electric current to human body.
In order to prevent children from electric shock, parents should strengthen education and supervision. Lighters, electric heaters, rechargeable mobile phones, etc. should not be placed where children can get them, and power switches, especially sockets, should not be touched by children; for the power lines of household appliances, do not connect or pull them randomly, so as to reduce the occurrence of electric shock accidents. If you are interested in children’s home electric shock prevention knowledge, please go to this safety net to find relevant information.